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Geography of Patna

Patna once known as Patliputra is an age old city that retained its position as capital city for time immemorial. The city situated on the Southern banks of holy river Ganga is at an altitude of 53 above sea level. Patna is located at the confluence of rivers- River Ganga from the east , Punpun from the north and Sone from the south . Patna also happens to be the is the largest riverine city in the world and has four major rivers in its vicinity. It is a fertile piece of land and is located at the eastern part of the Indo-Gangetic plain. The city is mainly plain and does not contain any hilly region. Patna district does not contain any forest area as the land is extremely fertile. The soil is predominantly alluvial. The coordinates 25.611°N latitude and 85.144°E longitude. The city is approximately 35 km long and 16 km to 18 km wide. In the ancient times, Patna was a prosperous city and also was a center of learning and fine arts. Over the years it has evolved into the administrative capital for the state of Bihar. 

Geography of Patna

Patna, is a major agricultural trade centre, other than it’s socio economic background. It is an exporter of  grain, sugarcane, sesame and also the Patna rice.Patna, has  an alluvial and  flat region. It does not have any hilly areas. There are two types of topographies- a narrow strip of fertile highland along with the Southern bank of Ganges and alluvial fertile plains.The district is without any forest land but full of fertile lands. The area is full of mango orchards and bamboo clumps.Weeds such as ammannia, hygrophile, citriculari and sesbania are grown extensively in the fields adjacent to the Ganges. Some of the parts of the villages that are located far away from the rivers are found covered with dry shrub jungles. The trees that can be seen primarily are bel, jack fruits, siris and red cotton. The confluence of many large rivers makes the region distinct from other districts of the state. The greater part of the city is watered by streams originating from the Chotonagpur plateau.The Gandak river joins the Ganges, opposite of Patna.The Son river forms a natural boundary between Patna district and Bhojpur district. Son River constitutes a natural boundary between Patna and Bhojpur districts. Mahatma Gandhi Setu is the bridge over the Ganga River. It is the longest bridge in India and is 5575 m long.

Topography of Patna

Patna, is located on the southern bank of river Ganges.It is surrounded on all three sides by rivers – the Ganga, Sone and Punpun.The river  Gandak , flows north of the city of Patna.It  is the largest riverine city in the world , a historic city , which was named by Princess Sarika, the daughter of King Pataliputra.The Hindu and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir and Nalanda, BodhGaya and Pawanpuri  are all near the city. It is also a sacred city for Sikhs , being the birthplace for  the tenth and last Guru Govind Singh. Topographically Patna can be divided into two parts, an 8 km narrow stretch of high land along the Southern banks of river Ganga and the other part consisting of plains with fertile alluvial soil. The two main rivers of Patna are River Ganga and River Son. River Ganga runs separates Patna from Saran, Tirhut and Darbhanga district along the northern part. River Ganga enters the district with the confluence of River Son. River Son enters Patna district at Mahabalipur. This river separates Patna from Bhojpur district. Punpun river runs in the north eastern direction and enters the Patna district at the southern part. Ganga dolphin is one of the rare aquatic species found in river Ganga in Patna.

Climate of Patna

The climate of Patna is humid and subtropical. As with the rest of India, Patna experiences three seasons, summer, rainy and winter . The summer months are extremely hot and last from March to June. With the advent of rains in the month of June, the summer season draws to a close and rainy season starts. The city receives adequate rainfall (approximately 120cm on an average) during the monsoon season which starts from late June to late September. The winter months are from November to February. Since Patna is located in the mainland and is entirely land locked (away from the sea coast), the city experiences extreme variation in temperatures. The highest temperature ever recorded in Patna was 46.6 °C (115.9 °F), in the year 1966.And the lowest temperature recorded has been 1.1 °C (34 °F), on January 9, 2013. Normally in summer season the temperature can go up till 42 degree C and in the winter it can fall up to 6 degree C.

Vegetation of Patna

Vegetation in  PatnaAs the land is rich in alluvial soil and the close proximity of rivers , Patna provides an ideal place for growing crops like rice, sugarcane and other food grains. Cash crops like vegetables and fruits are also grown in abundance here. The place also has mango orchads and bamboo clumps. The highly fertile stretch of land along the banks of river Ganga is called Diara and keeps increasing every year. The flora of the place includes trees as are Bel, Siris, Jack fruits and the red cotton tree and few weeds such as Ammannia, Citriculari, Hygrophile and Sesbania.

Soil of Patna

The soil here is mostly black cotton soil and sometimes mixed with sand on the river.; The soil is highly fertile Alluvial soil and is suitable for growing almost all type of grains and cash crops like fruits and vegetables. Patna, is a major agricultural trade centre, other than it’s socio economic background.The area is full of mango orchards and bamboo clumps. Some of the parts of the villages that are located far away from the rivers are found covered with dry shrub jungles.; The confluence of many large rivers makes the region distinct from other districts of the state.

Geographical details of Patna

Country : India
State : Bihar
Region : Magadha
Division : Patna
District : Patna
Avg. annual temperature : 26 °C (79 °F)
Avg. summer temperature : 30 °C (86 °F)
Avg. winter temperature : 17 °C (63 °F)
Coordinates: 25.611°N 85.144°E

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